book cover

How Will You Measure Your Life?

Clayton M. Christensen, James Allworth, Karen Dillon
22 Dec 2022
  • 好的理論可以用來預測未來,不一定需要從經驗中學習(例如不一定要等到孩子18歲才知道怎樣作為好父母)
  • 重要的事不一定令你快樂
  • 容易進入陷阱:
    • 心血放在feedback最快的事情上
    • 心血放在最緊急的事上
  • 浪費了時間放在長遠來說不乎個人目的的事上,太短視
  • 很多公司/政府/機構的升遷機制也是不幸地令人員專注在短期有回饋的事情上(企業明日之星提拔看最近2年的成續,議員每隔幾年就要再選)令需要長時間才有回饋的事情被忽視
  • 當我們開始認清目的為何的時候
    1. 輕重緩急
    2. 計劃vs機會
    3. 資源分配
  • 工作裡面有:
    • Hygiene Factor + Motivators → Two factor theory (by Frederick Herzberg)
    • Hygiene Factor = 外在誘因
      • 人工,工作環境
    • Motivators = 內在誘因(自發)
      • 挑戰性,認可,成長
  • 策略通常為2種:
    • 預期的機會
      • 看得到,能下定決心的目標
      • Deliberate Strategy
    • 無可預測的機會
      • Emergent Strategy
      • 意料之外的策略,突發的
      • 可以用小實驗一步步的驗證,修改
      • 但會根據feedback, tuning deliberate strategy → 最後變成Deliberate Strategy
  • 要決定究竟應不應該往某方向投入資源(for the strategy to be successful)
    • 如果預計的結果要成功,哪些假設必須為真?
  • 個人的資源分配基本上是根據本能思考而作決定
  • 一連串的小決定
  • 好資金 vs 壞資金
  • 整合資源 → 自創流程 → 決定優先次序
  • 目的三部曲:Draft,投入,量度
  • 用什麼來量度是否與目標方向一致
  • 建立公司文化同樣道理


  • Emergent strategies need a series of tuning before they become deliberate strategies. Deliberate strategies are those with goals that are within eyesight, those that you can make up your mind then go for it. For those that reward or outcome wont be coming within a short period of time, how do you be sure that this deliberate strategy is the way to go?
  • Or if you are having doubts, those strategies are still emergent strategies? As once you treat something as deliberate strategy, it means that the goals are already determined, regardless of the short-of-feedback (outcome) along the way, you can still grind through with grit.
  • We tend to focus on stuff (or priority) that can bring immediate results. ← this is how you decide the order of action.
  • Do we stereotype the expected outcome
  • Are the expected outcome truly what we are looking for
  • Stereotyped of “success” and stereotyped of the meter of measuring “success”
  • Doing things that you enjoy doing. In that sense, what’s the meter like, is it 0 or 1? If you are doing what you’re doing, then you’re content already.
  • Require a clear strategy of “when facing doubts” → what to do. Reacting to negativity or things not going well should not be of emergent strategies.
We are fixated on immediate answers. That’s pretty intuitive. but probably should get used to the situation where no one particular “answer” stands out but a lot of open doors are present in front - and those doors present different opportunities.
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